a. Pruning for fructification
This type of pruning concerns fruitful branches and mid-sized boughs. Fruitful branches shouldn’t be cut annually. They should not be cut down unless they are older, branched and longer. Pruning must be done in order to induce the ramification of branches. For the blossoming trees there should be a balance between the number of buds and the tree’s potential. For 5-8 years fructification pruning is done simultaneously with maintenance pruning. Towards the middle of the period of full production, as a result of vegetative potential decrease, shoot growth becomes insufficient. On the mid-sized bough through fructification pruning the effete fruitful branches are eliminated and stimulus conditions are created for some vegetative branches on which young fruitful branches are formed. Vigorous one year old branches should be eliminated or bent and shortened so that they can ramify. Branches over two years old can be shortened, if necessary in the area of two year old wood. To avoid ramification the base part is kept.
b. Periodical fruiting
The trees which are planted in poor soil, unfertilized and untended produce fruits periodically.
Measures to fight periodicity in fruiting years are: applying phosphorus and potassium fertilizers and one third of nitrogen fertilizers during autumn, pruning in order to rarefy and fructify them, this way normalizing the fructification; rejuvenating fruit formation; taking measures to protect the flowers against late spring frost; rarefying flowers and fruits where they are too many; applying appropriate treatment against diseases and pests; maintaining an optimum balance between leaves and fruits; ensuring soil humidity; applying supplementary nutrients. Measures to fight periodicity in non- fruiting years are: moderate pruning in order not to stimulate too much vegetative growth; applying moderate nitrogen based fertilizer, appropriate phytosanitary treatments in order to maintain healthy leaf formation.
c. Pruning during vegetation
The interior of the crown has to be clear of grasping shoot agglomeration with vertical growth, which start from the trunk and from the older parts of the main ramifications. In July-August we will rarefy the top areas and crown margins, to avoid the excessive agglomeration with the vigorous growths of boughs and fruitful branches. The simplification which is obtained through these means leads to a better sap circulation (xylem and phloem), change growth ratio between main shoots and rival shoots, causes radical changes, the way we desire, in the positioning of buds on the shoots. The rival shoots from the main branches will be eliminated. If on the two year old wood, which will continue to grow each year, there are too many shoots it is recommended to remove some of them according to their position on that branch. The offshoots that are positioned on the superior part and grow vertically are removed (in the worst case they will be cut above a bud which is laterally-oriented). Generally pruning (interventions) during vegetation is differentially applied, according to species, breed, strength, ramification capacity, fruit load. In the case of big growth in the crown area and a small quantity of fruits, the interventions will be stronger. For the trees with a poor growth and good fruits, the interventions will be superficial, strictly corrective.
d. Pinching out shoots
Pinching shoots consists of removing the herbaceous top of the growing shoots, above the last mature leaf, or, in some cases, from 2 to 4 leaves. The effects are different, according to the growing phase of the shoots and the execution time.
During the intense growth phase of the shoots, the pinching determines them to stop growing in length, the shoots which are near them will continue to grow, it stimulates the formation of anticipated shoots (extensions). The growth of the pinched shoot is taken over by the bud which has become terminal.
The pinching which is done in the shoot slow growing phase, determines better tissue maturation, and growth is not resumed. Pinching offers the possibility to control and balance the growth between the shoots of the same importance from the crown (branch and sub-branch extensions), by pinching them when one or another have an advance of 15-20 cm.
In the case of young trees that continue to grow, a late shoot pinching will be performed, at the beginning of autumn, so that the growth will stop which will encourage the wood to mature, thus increasing resistance to winter frosts.
Other operations during vegetation- guiding, inclining, arching- are done in close correlation with crown formation, branch garnishing, balancing growth and fruiting trees, also depending on the operations is the execution time during the vegetation.